A New Dataset on Data-related Trade Provisions


The TAPED (Trade Agreements Provisions on Electronic-commerce and Data) dataset seeks to comprehensively trace developments in the area of digital trade governance. The dataset includes a detailed mapping and coding of all preferential trade agreements (PTAs) that cover chapters, provisions, annexes and side documents that directly or indirectly regulate digital trade.

TAPED covers more than 340 PTAs agreed upon since 2000. A total of 84 different items were coded, including provisions on digital trade, intellectual property, key services sectors, government procurement, trade in goods, as well as general and specific exceptions. The codebook made available below explains in detail the questions behind the coding points.

Beyond this and in an effort to link to international relations research, an assessment of the extent of legalization of all coded provisions was also performed, distinguishing between ‘soft’, ‘mixed’ and ‘hard’ commitments, as well as the number of provisions and words contained in each agreement that are related to digital trade.



We trust that the dataset can be useful for researchers in different areas, such as law, economics or political science, as well as for governments, international and non-governmental organization officials, who may use it as a tool for evidence-based policy-making but also for normative analyses of how things should be, so as to ensure that data innovation is fostered but at the same time certain fundamental values, such as privacy protection, are adequately safeguarded.

We view the TAPED dataset as a continued effort and make it available to all to use and further develop under the creative commons (attribution, non-commercial, share-alike) license. We would be honoured to link to further research and publications that make use of TAPED.



Codebook (2020/06/08)

Codebook (2019/01/14)


TAPED Excel File (2021/06/11)

TAPED Excel File including EU drafts (2021/06/11)

TAPED Exel File (2020/10/22)

TAPED Exel File including EU drafts (2020/10/22)

TAPED Excel File (2020/06/08)

TAPED Excel File (2020/05/12)

TAPED Excel File (2019/11/30)





The TAPED dataset has been created under the project ‘The Governance of Big Data in Trade Agreements’, which is led by Mira Burri and Manfred Elsig and based at the Universities of Lucerne and Bern. It is part of the National Research Programme (NRP)75: Big Data, which is sponsored by the Swiss National Science Foundation. The TAPED dataset would not have been possible without the time and effort invested by a great team.

Project Leader and Co-Leader: Mira Burri, Manfred Elsig

Postdoctoral Fellow: Rodrigo Polanco

Doctoral Fellows: Rahel Schär, Sebastian Klotz

Research Assistants: Rutendo Tavengerwei, Ximena Montenegro Huerta


For further questions please contact:

MLaw Rahel Schär

T+41 41 229 54 51
Frohburgstrasse 3, 6002 Lucerne

Creative Commons International License

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/.