A Dataset on Digital Trade Provisions

The TAPED (Trade Agreement Provisions on Electronic-commerce and Data) dataset seeks to comprehensively trace developments in the area of digital trade governance. The dataset includes a detailed mapping and coding of all preferential trade agreements (PTAs) that cover chapters, provisions, annexes and side documents that directly or indirectly regulate digital trade.

TAPED covers more than 430 PTAs concluded since 2000. A total of 116 different items were coded, including provisions on digital trade, intellectual property, key services sectors, government procurement, trade in goods, as well as general and specific exceptions and new cross-cutting data economy issues. The codebook made available below explains in detail our methodology and the questions behind the coded items.

The TAPED dataset was initially launched as part of the research project ‘Governance of Big Data in Trade Agreements’ and received funding from the Swiss National Science Foundation under the National Research Programme (NRP)75: Big Data (2017–2021). Instrumental in the creation of the dataset were in particular Dr Rodrigo Polanco, who was a postdoctoral fellow under the project, as well as Dr Rahel Schär. The scope and substance of the TAPED dataset were announced in 2020 with the publication: Mira Burri and Rodrigo Polanco, ‘Digital Trade Provisions in Preferential Trade Agreements: Introducing a New Dataset’, Journal of International Economic Law 23:1 (2020), 1-34.

Currently, the TAPED dataset is continued, expanded and modified under the ERC Consolidator Grant project ‘TRADE LAW 4.0: Trade Law for the Data-Driven Economy’ (2021–2026), which is financed by the European Research Council and led by Mira Burri as a Principal Investigator.

Versions of the TAPED dataset as of 2022 should be cited as: Mira Burri, Maria Vasquez Callo-Müller and Kholofelo Kugler, TAPED: Trade Agreement Provisions on Electronic Commerce and Data, available at: https://unilu.ch/taped with the date of retrieval.

We trust that the TAPED dataset can be useful for researchers in different areas, such as law, economics or political science, as well as for governments, international and non-governmental organization officials, who may use it as a tool for evidence-based policy-making but also for normative analyses. We view the TAPED dataset as a continued effort and make it available to all to use and further develop under the creative commons (attribution, non-commercial, share-alike) license. We will be honoured to link to further research and publications that make use of TAPED.



Codebook (2023/11/02)

TAPED Dataset (2023/11/02)


Codebook (2022/11/30)

TAPED Dataset (2022/11/30)

Codebook (2022/06/22)

TAPED Dataset (2022/06/22)

Codebook (2022/01/25)

TAPED Dataset (2022/01/25)

Codebook (2020/06/08)

TAPED Dataset (2021/07/13)


For further questions (incl. of previous versions of the dataset) please contact:

María Vásquez Callo-Müller

T+41 41 229 54 52
Frohburgstrasse 3, 6002 Lucerne

Creative Commons International License

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/.