Here you can find more information about our research.
Team: Prof. Dr. Joachim Blatter // Dr. Diego Garzia
The European Union (EU) as the flagship of supra-nationalism is in a severe crisis. Its legitimacy is increasingly questioned by populist and nationalist parties which claim that the political elites and procedures have become detached from the people and that immigrants endanger the welfare and the culture of the autochthonous population. In this context, the project investigates the potential of transnational citizenship and voting opportunities as current and future pathways contributing to reduce the distance between the people and politicians and to overcome the dichotomy between migrants and sedentary populations.
Based on normative theorizing, current empirical tendencies, and existing ideas, we first develop two proposals for transnationalizing voting spaces on the European and on the national level. The first proposal lays out how voters from EU member states could vote for parties from other member states in the election to the European Parliament. The second proposal envisions that voters from other EU member states could elect (a limited number of) representatives in the national parliament of each EU member state. These proposals build on and expand current trends to allow voting beyond the confines of territory (requirement: residency) and nationality (requirement: citizenship).
Second, with the help of a pan-European Electronic Voting Advice Application (VAA), we will gather information not only about the current extent of transnational voting (by external and dual citizens) and transnational campaigning of parties. We will also find out whether and where people and parties are willing to support and use those further opportunities for transnational voting that we lay out in our two proposals. VAAs play a double role in our project: Conceptually, they are necessary preconditions for making our proposals viable. Empirically, a VAA that we will set up together with the European University Institute in Florence will create the data for our and further scientific studies.
Finally, our project brings together two strands of research: The first strand of research is concerned with citizenship rights and practices beyond the realm of the Westphalian nation state, while the second deals with the design of electoral systems for multi-national polities. We will test whether voters and parties are mainly driven by polity-centered considerations (interest in and identification with particular or multiple nation states or with the EU) or by policy-centered considerations (policy positions and preferences).
Altogether, the project will stimulate the discussion about a third transnational pathway for securing the effectiveness and legitimacy of the European Union beyond supranationalism and nationalism. It will tremendously expand our empirical knowledge out the current level of transnational orientations and practices of people and parties in Europe, and at the same time we will find out whether and where people and parties support expanded options for transnational voting. Furthermore, the project will allow us to keep at the forefront of research dealing with VAAs. Finally, the gained insights might be stimulating for other multi-lingual or multi-national democratic systems.
Team: Prof. Dr. Lena Schaffer (PI) // Zsuzsanna Magyar, PhD (Postdoc, 2020-) // Maximilian Lueth (PhD student) // Research Assistants: Greta Kurpicz, Nick Luchsinger, Flavia Stalder
Former members: Dr. Resul Umit (Postdoc, 2018-2020) // Research Assistants: Jonathan Biedermann, Alessio Levis
In the past decades, and especially in the aftermath of the Kyoto protocol, national and subnational governments have implemented a great variety of climate change policy responses. Central to national responses are policies that target energy production and energy efficiency due to their large contribution to CO2 emissions. Thus, energy policies helping to decarbonize the economy by, e.g., switching from fossil fuels to renewable energy, have been a popular choice. Since there is no ‘silver bullet’ approach on how to best achieve energy transition, governments have experimented with different policy instruments. They have put a mix of subsidies, taxes, and emissions trading in place in an effort to steer industrial and private actors toward a low- carbon economy. Variations in national energy policy instruments are supposed to emanate from different electoral/political institutions as well as differences in interest group activity and public demand. This project moves on from the study of what determines countries’ energy policies to the timely and important question of what happens after policy adoption. In particular, it analyzes and disentangles the perception and evaluation of the redistributive effects of energy policies. Introducing a political science perspective makes an essential contribution to the study of the consequences of energy policies and, more generally, the design of effective and (politically) viable energy solutions to climate change.
Although numerous studies in energy economics have analyzed whether specific policy instruments are effective at reducing CO2 or, more important for policy makers, cost-effective, less attention has been paid to their redistributive potential. This project will substantially add to our understanding of how energy-related climate change policies affect actors’ incentives and preferences and what these effects mean for future policy change. While the advent of new interest coalitions may be good news in the energy realm because it can break ‘carbon lock-in’, redistributive concerns (e.g., of individuals not profiting or hurt by these policies) may also erode the societal consensus needed to push for further transition. Therefore, the research project studies the redistributive implications of energy policies on three groups of actors – individuals, publics, and political parties. Using insights from political economy, hypotheses on the specific effects of energy policies on party platforms, civil society actors, and individual voters will be developed.
While paying special attention to the Swiss context, the project compare the implications of energy policies across several countries and over time. This design makes it possible to evaluate the Swiss case in comparative perspective and to identify what makes it unique as well as the common features it shares with other countries. Analyzing the distributional effects of energy policy in a cross-country and longitudinal study framework allows this project to not only make a unique and substantial contribution to current, high-impact research in environmental politics, but to also provide political decision-makers with systematic and policy- relevant data on public opinion the political cleavages affecting and created by future energy policies.
Please click here for the synopsis in German.
Team: Dr. Diego Garzia // Andrea De Angelis, MA // Frederico Ferreira da Silva, MA
Over the last decades, the "personalization of politics" has turned into one of the defining elements of the democratic process. However, the common wisdom that sees popular political leaders as a fundamental electoral asset for their own parties finds only limited support in the scant voting literature. So far, comparative electoral research has proven reluctant in systematically addressing the impact of leaders on voting across time and space. Equally crucial aspects such as the role played by television exposure as a driver of personalization in voting behaviour, and the relationship between the rise of Internet-based political communication and the personalization trend have so far been under-researched.
The major aim of this project is to empirically assess the extent to which political leaders have come to affect voter's choice, as well as the role played by the media in driving this development across time. This project substantially extends the existing state-of-the-art on personalization of politics and electoral behaviour through its innovative methodological approach and its wider geographical/longitudinal scope. It involves the longitudinal harmonization and analysis of over a hundred existing cross-sectional datasets from European countries (1960-2015). Analysis of available panel data will complement the findings of the longitudinal analysis by focusing more in depth on causal dynamics. With regard to the research environment in which to place the study, the current state of the literature suggests that European democracies represent the locus where more research is in need. European democracies highlight many of the crucial variations in the structure of democratic politics and thus provide the ideal framework for such a thoroughly comparative analysis. The European-wide dimensions of the study will allow for an extensive testing of the institutional, contextual and technological factors mediating leader effects across time and space.
- "Racist Voters and Minority Candidates. A Conceptual Puzzle and an Empirical Challenge with a Focus on the Swiss Case" (SNSF Ambizione project)
Team: Dr. Nenad Stojanovic // Lea Portmann, MA
Following normative democratic theory, citizens should have an equal and effective opportunity to vote in an election, all votes being counted as equal. And citizens should be free to choose a party or candidate. But citizens are not only voters. They can also participate in elections as candidates. This means that citizens must also be free to run as candidates and should have an "equal chance" to run for office. What if voters belonging to a given identity group vote only for candidates from that group and not for candidates of a minority group and this decision is based on morally objectionable forms of prejudice? This "electoral discrimination" may result in a massive statistical underrepresentation of citizens from the minority group in democratic institutions and reduce the freedom to run for office to an empty shell. The aim of this project is twofold: It will explore the theoretical aspects of electoral discrimination and will present an empirical analysis of electoral discrimination in Switzerland based on data for the 2015 elections to the Swiss National Council by focusing upon “minority candidates”. The originality of the project lies in the fact that the concept of discrimination in the electoral process has not been sufficiently addressed so far in the contemporary political theory literature, and that contrary to other liberal-democratic countries there are hardly any empirical studies that have explored either minority representation as such, or the extent of electoral discrimination in Switzerland.
Please click here for more information about this project in German.
- "Energy Policy – Evaluating Instruments and Implementation Structures in the Field of Energy Policy in Federal Systems" (Contribution to the SCCER CREST Task 3.1: Comparative and Implementation Analysis)
Team: Prof. Dr. Joachim Blatter // INTERFACE Politikstudien Forschung Beratung (and Partners)
The Competence Center for Research in Energy, Society and Transition (CREST) is one of the Swiss Competence Centers for Energy Research (SCCER). It contributes to the energy transition in Switzerland by providing evidence-based recommendations on policies. The Department of Political Science of Lucerne is involved in the SCCER CREST’s task 3.1. We are occupied with research on the influence of different policy instruments and implementation structures on the success of energy policies in federal systems like Switzerland.
Please click here for more information about our contribution to SCCER CREST in German.
Team: Prof. Dr. Joachim Blatter // Dr. Andrea Schlenker // Eva Granwehr, BA
In recent decades we have seen a dramatic rise of dual citizenship, with Switzerland being a vanguard in this respect as it accepted dual citizenship in 1992. Today more than ten percent of the Swiss population has more than one passport. However, the consequences of this trend are disputed and not well understood. In popular discourses dual citizenship is mostly seen as a threat to national cohesion and democracy. In contrast, many intellectuals and scholars conceive of dual citizens as vanguard of citizenship practices above and across nation states, and as an important source for democratizing a globalizing world order. However, these debates are not only taking place in different discursive fields, the two aspects are also not well connected in empirical research. This project tries to fill this void by tracing the political involvement of dual citizens in Switzerland as well as their transnational and their cosmopolitan citizenship practices. A first goal of the project is to lay out a theory-based and coherent typology of spaces of citizenship practices and political involvement beyond the nation state. The second and main goal of the project is to find out empirically whether transnational ties and membership in multiple national communities hinder political involvement in the country of residence, and whether they facilitate the development of supranational citizenship practices. The empirical study will follow a mixed methods approach combining quantitative survey data and narrative and semi-structured interviews with three sets of carefully selected (dual) citizens.
Please click here to see preliminary results of this project.
Team: Prof. Dr. Andreas Balthasar // Walter Rohrbach, MA // Olivier Dolder, MA
Existing research indicates heterogeneity of the organisational evaluation culture across policy sectors. However, to date, no study has systematically assessed the reasons why the evaluation culture has developed differently across policy sectors and administrative units in Switzerland on a federal and cantonal level. This subproject of SynEval, a inter-university project occupied with policy evaluation in the Swiss political system, aims at closing this gap with two dissertations. A first dissertation focuses on the influence of policy sectors on the evaluation culture, a second dissertation on the relationship of evaluation culture and New Public Management reforms. The subproject is linked to all the other SynEval-subprojects by measuring the same dependent or independent variable – the evaluation culture on both the cantonal and the federal level.
Please click here for more information about this project in German.
- "From Rule-Takers to Rule-Makers? Emerging Powers in the Regulation of International Trade" (SNIS-Project)
Team: Prof. Dr. Sandra Lavenex // Dr. Omar Serrano // Ivo Krizic, MA
Team: Prof. Dr. Sandra Lavenex // Dr. Omar Serrano // Lei Wang, MA
- "Democratic governance in and through trans-governmental networks" (current focus of our ongoing participation in the "NCCR Democracy")
Team: Prof. Dr. Sandra Lavenex // Dr. des. Michael Buess
Team: Prof. Dr. Sandra Lavenex // Dr. Flavia Jurje
Team: Prof. Dr. André Bächtiger // Dominik Wyss, MA // Simon Beste, MA // Maja Baumann, BA
Working Paper #1 - Dual Citizenship and Democracy
Working Paper #2 - Acceptance of Dual Citizenship
Joachim Blatter, Stefanie Erdmann and Katja Schwanke
Working Paper #3 - Mobilising Diasporas
Working Paper #4 - Patents, Power and Rhetoric
Working Paper #5 - Unity in Diversity
Working Paper #6 - Between Nationalism and Globalism
Joachim Blatter and Andrea Schlenker
Working Paper #7 - Forms of Political Governance
Working Paper #8 - The Immigrant Inclusion Index (IMIX)
Joachim Blatter, Samuel D. Schmid, Andrea Blättler
Working Paper #9 - A Critique of Swiss Democracy (German)
Find out more information here.
Find out more information here.
The Department of Political Science at the University of Lucerne unites a group of scholars who make major contributions to social science methodology at the crossroads between quantitative and qualitative research. What these scholars share is a commitment to “configurational thinking” and the application of such thinking to the formation of concepts and to empirical research. With this focus and concentration of competencies, LUCCS is internationally unique.
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This project comparatively evaluates a selection of EU member states with respect to their electoral inclusion of immigrant residents. It uses a novel index that bridges the fields of citizenship studies, democracy measurement, and normative analysis. Find out more and download our dataset.
Prof. Sandra Lavenex and her co-author Prof. Frank Schimmelfennig received the award for the most widely read special issue as well as the most widely read article of the renowned Journal of European Public Policy in the year 2010 and 2011.
Established in 2006 and therefore the youngest of its kind, the University of Lucerne’s Department of Political Science is already rated as one of the best in Switzerland for scientific publication output and international academic visibility.
The article "Multiple Identities in Europe: a Conceptual and Empirical Analysis" written by Dr. Andrea Schlenker received the "best contribution by a PhD student" award from the European excellence network EU-Consent.
The essay "Der Global Compact der Vereinten Nationen: Ein Lern- und Dialogforum?" written by Michael Buess (then MA) received the "best student research paper on the United Nations" award from UNO-Academia.
The book "Governance: theoretische Formen und historische Transformationen" of Prof. Dr. Joachim Blatter received one of the research prices of the German Association for Political Science as best Post-Doc work. His academic work has also been included in the "DeutschPlus" program of the Volkswagen-Stiftung. This program aims to translate into English relevant works from any academic field with the aim of making them available to a wider public and to ensure that European academic publications are present in English-dominated academic debates.
The article "Shifting Up and Out: The Foreign Policy of EU Migration Control" of Prof. Dr. Sandra Lavenex won the "best article" prize from the renowned journal West European Politics.
- "Der Einfluss kantonaler Justizsysteme auf das Vertrauen der Bevölkerung in die Gerichte"
Ph.D. Student: Christoph Schwenkel
Disputation: 13th of July 2016
Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Andreas Balthasar & Prof. Dr. Michele Luminati
- "The impact of cooperation between Europarties and non-EU parties on party development in Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine"
Ph.D. Student: Maria Shagina
Disputation: 7th of November 2016
Supervisors: Dr. Sandra Lavenex/Dr. Kataryna Wolczuk